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Weathering and Soil

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Soil is a mixture of weathered rock, mineral fragments, water, air and ____.
a.
sand
c.
moss
b.
decayed organic matter
d.
clay
 

 2. 

The layer of soil that contains the most organic material is called the ____ horizon.
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 3. 

Litter often covers the ____ horizon.
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
all of the above
 

 4. 

Mechanical weathering is more rapid in a ____ climate.
a.
dry
c.
cold
b.
hot
d.
humid
 

 5. 

The organic matter in humus is made of ____.
a.
dead worms
c.
roots
b.
stems
d.
all of the above
 

 6. 

On steep slopes and mountains, ____ helps reduce erosion by creating level areas for crops.
a.
a shelter belt
c.
mulching
b.
strip cropping
d.
terracing
 

 7. 

The difference between mechanical and chemical weathering is ____.
a.
the length of time each takes to break up a rock
b.
that only chemical weathering involves water
c.
the way they affect the makeup of a rock
d.
all of the above
 

 8. 

Plants cannot grow without ____.
a.
rocks
c.
moss
b.
soil
d.
pesticides
 

 9. 

Ice wedging is brought about by ____.
a.
carbonic acid freezing on rocks
c.
water freezing and thawing
b.
water and oxygen reacting
d.
rocks colliding with each other
 

 10. 

Oxidation occurs when materials containing ____ are exposed to oxygen and water.
a.
iron
c.
kaolinite
b.
carbonic acid
d.
all of the above
 

 11. 

The B horizon is ____.
a.
rockier than the C horizon
c.
lighter than the A horizon
b.
richer in humus than the A horizon
d.
thinner than the C horizon
 

 12. 

Mechanical weathering ____.
a.
breaks apart rocks by physical processes
b.
occurs when chemical reactions dissolve or change the minerals in rocks
c.
occurs when iron is exposed to oxygen and water
d.
none of the above
 

 13. 

Chemical weathering ____.
a.
is caused by freezing and thawing
b.
breaks apart rocks by physical processes
c.
occurs when chemical reactions dissolve or change the minerals in rocks
d.
none of above
 

 14. 

When water mixes with carbon dioxide gas in the air or soil, ____ forms.
a.
carbonic acid
c.
calcite
b.
lactic acid
d.
oxygen
 

 15. 

When Joe saw the Rocky Mountains for the first time, he said, “These mountains are much younger than the mountains in North Georgia.”  How could he know this?
a.
their sedimentary layers are still exposed
c.
they are taller so they are actually older
b.
the Rocky Mountains have tall rugged tops from long-term weathering
d.
the North Georgia Mountains have rounded tops from long-term weathering
 

 16. 

The major process that wears down whole mountain ranges is
a.
earthquakes
c.
plate movement
b.
weathering
d.
silt deposition
 

 17. 

Which of these usually causes mechanical weathering but some also cause chemical weathering?
a.
animals burrowing
c.
oxidation
b.
plants
d.
carbonic acid
 

 18. 

When rocks undergo weathering, they become
a.
magma
c.
sediment
b.
igneous rocks
d.
volcanic cones
 

 19. 

All of the following cause mechanical weathering EXCEPT ____.
a.
ice
c.
burrowing animals
b.
tree roots
d.
carbonic acid
 

 20. 

While on a hike, Mya noticed many rocks which were round and smooth. Which of these is the MOST LIKELY reason the rocks are round and smooth?
a.
They were exposed to the wind.
b.
They were fractured in a landslide.
c.
They were eroded by moving water.
d.
They are volcanic rocks and were formed that way.
 

 21. 

Over time, a canyon in a plateau gradually became deeper. Which of these most likely caused the canyon to become deeper?
a.
earthquakes
c.
running water
b.
strong winds
d.
volcanic activity
 

 22. 

Which process is LEAST LIKELY to cause erosion?
a.
ocean waves
b.
wind blowing
c.
glacier movement
d.
continental plate movement
 

 23. 

The action of the wind creates sand dunes in deserts and beaches. Which process is responsible for the formation of sand dunes?
a.
deposition
c.
erosion
b.
etching
d.
weathering
 

 24. 

Which of these supplies beaches with the most new sand?
a.
Rivers
c.
Tides
b.
Marine organisms
d.
Rain
 

 25. 

Which of these moves the most sand along the coast?
a.
Humans
c.
Waves
b.
Marine organisms
d.
Wind
 



 
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