1. Atoms-tiny particles that make up all matter.
2. Mineral-naturally occurring inorganic solid that has a definite chemical composition and an orderly crystal structure.
3. Inorganic means never alive!!! Rocks were never alive!
4. Crystal-solid whose atoms are arranged in an orderly, repeating pattern
5. Magma-hot melted rock beneath the Earth’s surface
6. Silicate-minerals that contain silicon and oxygen. Silicates form the most minerals on earth.
7. Minerals are made of one or more elements.
8. native elements-Gold, silver and copper are elements that occur in nature in relatively pure form. They are elements and minerals.
9. Silicates are the most common minerals on earth.
10. Quartz-mineral found in more rocks than any other.
11. Minerals are natural, inorganic, have a definite chemical composition and a crystal structure.
12. Physical properties can be seen without changing the material
13. Five physical properties of minerals are: hardness, luster, streak, cleavage, and fracture.
14. The specific gravity of a mineral is the ratio of its weight compared with the weight of an equal volume of water
15. Gold has a specific gravity of 19. that means that if you have an equal amount of water and of gold, the gold is 19 times heavier than the water. Iron pyrite is only 5 times heavier than water.
16. Hardness measures how easily a mineral can be scratched.
17. Hardness is expressed in numbers from 1 to 10.
18. Friederich Mohs created a scale called the Mohs scale that lists the hardness of ten minerals. Talc is the softest and diamonds are the hardest.
19. Luster describes the way a mineral reflects light. It can be metallic or nonmetallic.
Metallic looks like a metal. Nonmetallic can look dull, like a pearl or like glass.
20. Streak-the color of the powder from a mineral. Rub a mineral across a streak plate and look at the color left behind.
21. Streak plate is a piece of unglazed porcelain tile that is used to test the streak of a mineral. The mineral must be softer than the streak plate. Quart is too hard to leave a streak. There is also a dark streak plate used to test light colored minerals.
22. Streak is more accurate than looking at the color because minerals change color on the outside.
23. Cleavage-is how the minerals will break along very smooth, flat surfaces.
Mica has excellent cleavage.
24. Fracture-some minerals will break with uneven, rough, or jagged surfaces.
25. Quartz has fracture because it breaks unevenly.
26. Calcite has cleavage because it breaks along smooth lines.
27. Special properties- a few minerals are magnetic, a few will glow in the dark, and a few give off radiation.
Talc is the softest mineral, it can be scratched with your fingernail
Diamonds are the hardest, they can only be scratched by another diamond.
28. 98 percent of the Earth’s crust is composed of only 8 elements, oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Oxygen and silicon make up the most, over 74%.