Mineral Notes:

1.  Mineral-naturally occurring inorganic solid that has a definite chemical composition and an orderly crystal structure.

2. Inorganic means never alive!!! Minerals were never alive!

3. Minerals make rocks, rocks DO NOT make minerals.

4. Minerals are made of one or more elements.

5. Silicate-minerals that contain silicon and oxygen.  

6. Silicates form the most minerals on earth.

7. Quartz- is the MOST common mineral found on Earth and is found in more rocks than any other.

8. native elements-Gold, silver and copper are elements that occur in nature in relatively pure form. They are elements and minerals.

9. Most minerals are formed when magma or lava cools and the crystals form.

10. Halite (salt) and gypsum are formed when water evaporates.  They are chemical minerals.

Mineral Properties:

11. Five physical properties of minerals are:  hardness, luster, streak, cleavage, and fracture.

12. Hardness measures how easily a mineral can be scratched.

13. Friederich Mohs created a scale called the Mohs scale that lists the hardness of ten minerals.

14.Talc is the softest mineral, it can be scratched with your fingernail

15. Diamonds are the hardest, they can only be scratched by another diamond.

16. Luster describes the way a mineral looks or reflects light. It can be metallic or nonmetallic.

17. Streak-the color of the powder from a mineral.  Rub a mineral across a streak plate and look at the color left behind.

18. Streak plate is a piece of unglazed porcelain tile that is used to test the streak of a mineral.

19. Cleavage-minerals will break along very smooth, flat surfaces. Mica has excellent cleavage.

20. Fracture-some minerals will break with uneven, rough, or jagged surfaces. Quartz has fracture.

21. Special properties- a few minerals are magnetic, a few will glow in the dark, and a few give off radiation.

22. 98 percent of the Earth’s crust is composed of only 8 elements, oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium.  Oxygen and silicon make up the most, over 74%.