Weathering-the wearing down, Erosion-the escape, and Deposition-the dropping

1. Weathering is the process by which rocks are broken down into smaller pieces.

2. Effects of weathering—surface processes break down rock into small pieces called sediment.

3. Erosion is the  movement of weathered rock from one place to another.

4. Two different types of weathering—mechanical weathering and chemical weathering

5. Mechanical weathering occurs when rocks are broken apart by physical processes. This means that the overall chemical makeup of the rock stays the same

6. Growing plants, burrowing animals, and expanding ice are some of the things that can mechanically weather rock

7. Plant roots begin to grow in the cracks, roots grow and enlarge the cracks

8. animals burrow (dig) into the ground, loosen sediment and push it to the surface where weathering attacks it

9. Ice wedging- water enters cracks and freezes and expands, breaking rocks apart, occurs in temperate and cold climates where water enters cracks in rocks and freezes

10. As rock is broken apart by mechanical weathering it will weather faster, the more exposed surfaces, the faster the weathering!

11. Chemical weathering chemical reactions dissolve minerals in rocks or change them into different minerals, it changes the actual makeup of the rock.

12. Chemical weathering by Carbonic Acid -water combines with carbon dioxide from the air and soil to form carbonic acid, as time passes, the acid dissolves some minerals

13. Some roots and decaying plants give off acids that can dissolve minerals in rock.  When these minerals dissolve, the rock is weakened.

14. Oxidation happens when iron is exposed to oxygen and water

15. Oxidation of minerals gives some rock layers a red color; ex-magnetite to limonite

16. Climate can definitely affect weathering of rocks

17. cold climates, if freezing and thawing are frequent, mechanical weathering rapidly breaks down rock through the process of ice wedging

18. Chemical weathering is more rapid in warm, wet climates

19. Lack of moisture in deserts and low temperatures in polar regions slow down chemical weathering

20. Rock type also can affect the rate of weathering in a particular climate

21.  Rocks at the top of mountains are broken down by weathering, and the sediment is moved downhill by gravity, water, and ice

22. erosion is the moving of sediment from one place to another.  Can be caused by gravity, water, wind, and glaciers.

23. smaller particles can be carried farther distances by erosion.  Stronger winds and faster water currents carry particles longer distances.

24. deposition-the dropping of sediments during erosion.

25. rock slides and mudflows are erosion caused by gravity

26. glaciers cause weathering, erosion, and deposition. 

27. wind causes weathering, erosion and deposition. 

28. abrasion caused by soil being blown by the wind.  Abrasion is weathering caused by the wind.

29. sand dunes are caused by wind erosion and deposition

30. In the water cycle, rain causes runoff, runoff causes erosion and deposition.

31. runoff can damage streams and rivers by dropping sediment into them.

32. weathering, erosion and deposition are constantly happening at the seashore.

33. waves pound on the shore grinding it into sediment

34. waves, currents, and tides move the sediment and deposit it other places.

35. longshore currents move parallel to the shore and move sediment up and down the shoreline. 

36. Barrier Islands are caused by longshore currents.  Barrier Islands help protect the mainland from hurricanes.

37. beach is a deposit of sediments caused by waves, currents, and tides.


1. Soil is a mixture of weathered rock, decayed organic matter, mineral fragments, water, and air.

2. bedrock is the layer of rock beneath soil

3. soils are made from weathered rock fragments.

4. parent rock is the rock that a particular type of soil is made from

5. humus-the very small particles of decayed plant and animal material found in soil.

7. horizons-mature soil can be divided into three layers called horizons

8. The O horizon is made of decaying material from dead organisms.

9. the top or A horizon is called the topsoil, where shallow plant roots absorb water and nutrients, also home to insects and worms

10. the second or B horizon is the subsoil, where you find clay and minerals and the DEEP roots of plants

11. the C horizon contains the weathered bedrock and is not part of the soil.

12. topsoil can take hundreds and thousands of years to form.

13. Soil texture describes the amounts of soil particles of different sizes that a soil contains.

14.Soil structure describes the arrangement of particles in a soil.